Critical materials, green energy and geopolitics

In this white paper, seven scientists set out where the Netherlands and the EU stand on the critical materials needed for the energy transition. Metals such as iron, copper, lithium and rare earths are to replace coal, oil and natural gas. A monumental shift, prone to disruption by geopolitics, for instance. The interviews show how Europe can achieve a strong, independent and ethical basis for the energy transition. Mining and refining on European territory, a circular approach and new financing systems are the basis for this.

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