Critical materials, green energy and geopolitics

In this white paper, seven scientists set out where the Netherlands and the EU stand on the critical materials needed for the energy transition. Metals such as iron, copper, lithium and rare earths are to replace coal, oil and natural gas. A monumental shift, prone to disruption by geopolitics, for instance. The interviews show how Europe can achieve a strong, independent and ethical basis for the energy transition. Mining and refining on European territory, a circular approach and new financing systems are the basis for this.

Download PDF

Share this publication

Other relevant publications

Reuse by consumers in the Netherlands

This report describes how the number of pieces and mass reuse by consumers was determined for the years 2021 and 2022.

Artificial intelligence and the circular economy

This paper offers a first look into the cross-section of two emerging megatrends: how AI can accelerate the transition to a circular economy.

Guide for a materials passport

This document specifies the conditions for a proper materials passport.

×